I wrote this article because I am convinced that chance evolution can no longer be considered a likely hypothesis in light of current scientific research and mathematical findings. My points below are only a few among many solid arguments made by others. Please read this article, check the references, and go to my web page for other scientific presentations and interesting links.

DNA, Common Sense, and Fairy Tales

by Helen C. Dickey

When the molecules-to-man evolutionary and spontaneous-origin-of-life hypothesis came out, no one understood the nature or complexity of DNA. Now natural scientists are beginning to understand.

To find out what the minimum genome might be for a single-cell that can autonomously self-replicate, scientists studied the genome of the species Mycoplasma mycoides, a parasite, and one of the smallest bacterial cells known, normally having a genome of about 1000 genes (with around 1,100,000 nucleotide base pairs) depending on the strain. [1] Other bacteria, such as E. coli, may have 4,000 to 5,000 genes. [2]

These scientists essentially knocked out all genes that weren't totally necessary for the bacteria to survive and replicate in a controlled environment and determined that this stripped down cell, with 473 genes, dubbed “JCVI-syn3.0”, constitutes the simplest possible living organism. Thus, a cell with 473 genes appears to be about as streamlined as a cell can be and still survive, albeit in a glucose culture, allowing evolutionists to imagine what a “primitive” cell genome may have looked like. [3]

The complete genome of JCVI-syn3.0 is composed of 531,560 nucleotides. [4] [5] There have only ever been two ways so many nucleotides have been observed to be sequenced in this way: 1) in an already functional, living cell, or 2) by intelligent intervention. It is inconceivable how such a huge nucleotide sequence could arise otherwise.

To visualize 531,560 nucleotides, think of small seeds and tweezers. Imagine counting half a million seeds by hand, lining them up, four different kinds, seed by seed, in a precise order, in such a way as to provide a specific set of instructions to carry out a variety of complicated tasks, without a single error since with a minimalist genome, one error will render the cell non-viable. [6] It is hard to believe that such a huge number of nucleotides, all in a precise working order, could have ever lined up by random chance, along with all the other complicated parts of a cell.

In the most basic, simple cell, millions of molecules, thousands of amino acids, and hundreds of genes would have had to spontaneously assemble in exactly the right positions in order for the cell to function at all. The amount of time needed for such a spontaneous assembly is incalculably great. The chances that all the working combinations would come together harmoniously is astronomically small because a so-called “primitive” cell that can reproduce is inestimably more complicated than most people think.

Nevertheless, we are told that the first living thing spontaneously generated in some warm little pond somewhere. This story, which is not based on any evidence whatsoever, stands in absolute contradiction to the most fundamental scientific law of biology, the law of biogenesis—that “life can only come from life.” Nothing even remotely as complex as a self-contained, self-replicating cell has ever been observed to have arisen spontaneously from non-living chemicals in any environment, even a lab-controlled one, let alone in the hypothetical changing, hostile environment we would find in nature, where water would serve to break apart any of the organic molecular chains necessary for life. [7] Life made by chance in some “warm little pond” sounds like a fairy tale.

Now Iet us take a look at the complexity of human DNA: According to NIH studies, the human genome, in each cell of our body, has an estimated 20,000 to 25,000 genes carrying 3 billion bits of information. [8] Most of our cells, however, are diploid which means they contain one strand of DNA from the father and one from the mother, meaning there are actually over 6 billion bits of information in each cell. [9]

My neighbor has a beautiful 30-year-old maple tree in his front yard which gets plenty of sun. It is more than twice as tall his two-story house and about twice as wide. This large tree might have about 1,000,000 leaves. [10] To get some concept of six billion, let us compare it to the same maple tree. Six billion divided by 1,000,000 leaves shows us that if each nucleotide in a human cell corresponded to one leaf on a large maple tree, we would need 6000 trees to cover all the nucleotides.

My two-inch thick Webster’s New World Dictionary brags about having over 159,000 entries. [11] If we think of each entry corresponding to one nucleotide and then divide 6,000,000,000 which is the approximate number of nucleotides in each cell, by 159,000, I get about 38,000 dictionaries needed for six billion entries. If we stacked these 38,000 dictionaries, they would be over a mile high. A dictionary is somewhat of an apt comparison because each entry appears in alphabetical order. Likewise, each nucleotide is in its own precise location and order. However, typographical errors in a dictionary could probably be fairly easily recognized and corrected by an intelligent reader; on the contrary, as those familiar with computer programming will be able to testify, “typographical” errors in code (like DNA) can easily be catastrophic. Also, like computer code, DNA codes for complicated processes, and any error in logic would cause the whole system to fail as well.

How could life which is so incomprehensibly complex and organized happen by chance and not by design? Belief that naturalistic, materialistic processes assembled all of life as we know it is a fantasy at best.

Given the enormous scope of coordination and the extreme magnitude of genomic intricacy, common sense tells us that life on earth could not have happened by chance. When the theory of evolution came out in the 19th century, no one, including Darwin, knew how complex life and its DNA really are. Now we know, and we have to look at the origin of life and at the molecules-to-man evolutionary hypothesis in the light of these new facts. Textbooks, schools, museums, and media should not have taught as fact what was only conjecture. Let us stop believing, writing, teaching, making laws, and acting as if creation happened by chance. What we observe has the fingerprints of our Creator God all over it.

Please visit creation.familyce.org for a longer version of this article and for links to other useful resources such as foundationsrestored.com and thejohn1010project.com.

------
1. https://www.nature.com/articles/srep19081/tables/1

2. https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/genes-how-few-needed-life

3. https://arstechnica.com/science/2016/03/minimalist-genome-only-473-genes-synthesized-and-used-to-boot-up-a-cell/

4. http://cba.mit.edu/docs/papers/16.04.minimal.pdf

5. https://www.sandiegouniontribune.com/business/biotech/sdut-minimal-genome-bacteria-venter-2016mar24-htmlstory.html

6. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2016/03/24/the-creators-of-the-first-synthetic-life-made-a-cell-with-just-enough-genes-to-survive/

7. https://socratic.org/questions/explain-how-water-molecules-dissolve-organic-molecules

8. Washington Post PARADE, August 30, 2009, page 5

9. https://www.veritasgenetics.com/our-thinking/whole-story/

10. http://wetlandnotes.com/estimating-the-number-of-leaves-on-a-tree 11. Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language, Second College Edition, David B. Guralnik, William Collins Publishers, Inc.,1979 (Actually 2.25 inches thick.)